WATERLINING IN BOOK ILLUSTRATION: ANTIQUATING MAPS
Of the travel books that include maps, we distinguish those that are waterlined, such such as Journey to Khiva by Philip Glazebrook. Also waterlined maps are found sometimes in seafaring novels (those by Patrick O’Brian come to mind). These and many others are executed in economical black linework on white background, resembling our manual creation in Figure 1 above. Needless to say, automated waterlining can achieve the ornamentation with more perfect shapes (Figure 2), plus exactly measured, decreasing intervals. Other modes of waterlining are illustrated in Figures 3 to 5. Figure 3 is of "full coverage" recommended when there is no much space between the shape to waterline and the frame. In the next figure controlled gray-scale tones are added to the lineweight variation. The series concludes in a full color, more refined, Figure 5.
The figure below is a small section of a mid 18th century map (L'Empire de Perse by George Louis Le Rouge). Although two and half centuries old, its waterlining is certainly more elegant than our crude attempt in Figure 1.